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Weekly Digest About Moshiach

Parshat Tetzave, 5767

Adar 12, 5767
March 2, 2007

Your Purim Guide - 5767

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The Table of Contents contains links to the text. Click on an entry in the Table of Contents and you will move to the information selected.



Maimonides, Principles of the Faith, No. 12


Click here, to see pictures of the Rebbe
The Daily Sicha (in Real Audio) - Listen to selected excerpts of the Rebbe's Sichos
[talks] which are relevant to the particular day.


We are pleased to present, to the visually impaired and the blind, the 515th issue of our weekly publication, Living With Moshiach.


In this week's issue, we focus on:

1) Shabbat Parshat Zachor, the second of four special Torah readings read in the synagogue on the Sabbaths before the month of Nissan -- Shekolim, Zachor, Parah and HaChodesh.

2) The festive holiday of Purim, which begins on Saturday night, March 3.

Therefore, we present here "Your Purim Guide,"* and other related material about Purim.


Our sincere appreciation to L'Chaim weekly publication, published by the Lubavitch Youth Organization, for allowing us to use their material.

Also, many thanks to our copy editor, Reb Mordechai Staiman, of blessed memory, for his tireless efforts.


It is our fervent hope that our learning about Moshiach and the Redemption will hasten the coming of Moshiach, NOW!

Rabbi Yosef Y. Shagalov
Committee for the Blind

9 Adar, 5767
Los Angeles, California


*. Published by Outreach Publishing Corp. (http://www.outreach770.com)

Special thanks to Rabbi M. Borisute for his help.

Horav Schneur Zalman Halevi
ben Horav Yitzchok Elchonon Halevi
Passed away on 21 Tamuz, 5766

Reb Dovid Asniel ben Reb Eliyahu
Passed away on 5 Sivan - Erev Shavuot, 5765

Mrs. Devora Rivka bas Reb Yosef Eliezer
Passed away on the second day
of Rosh Chodesh Adar, 5766

Mrs. Esther Shaindel bas Fraidel Chedva


Dedicated by their children
Rabbi & Mrs. Yosef Yitzchok and Gittel Rochel

Adapted from the Works of the Rebbe

Parshat Tetzave

In last week's Torah portion of Teruma, G-d commanded the building of a copper altar upon which would be offered various sacrifices. At the end of this week's Torah portion of Tetzave, the Torah commands us to build yet another altar, this one of gold.

These two altars differ from all the other vessels that were in the Sanctuary and the Holy Temple, in that they could never be rendered impure. Other vessels and implements could become contaminated and impure, but not these two altars.

The purity inherent in the altars can also be interpreted on a deeper, personal level. It refers to the soul of every Jew. And the mitzvah to build the Sanctuary of G-d, in addition to being a general commandment for the Jewish nation, also contains within it the commandment to build a personal "sanctuary" in one's heart. A Jew can make himself a "holy place" in which the light of G-dliness dwells and is revealed.

In the spiritual Sanctuary within each one of us there are also vessels and implements with which to worship G-d. These "vessels" are the brain, the heart, the mouth, the hands, the feet, etc. A Jew is required to utilize his brain for learning Torah, his heart to be filled with love and fear of G-d, his mouth for speaking words of Torah and prayer, his hands for performing mitzvot, his feet for running to perform good deeds, and so on. This is how a Jew transforms himself into a Sanctuary for G-d.

Unfortunately, we find that these "vessels" sometimes become impure when used in a manner not in accordance with Judaism. There is one vessel, however, that can never be defiled -- the altar. The altar is the basis and foundation of the entire Sanctuary. The altar expresses the absolute attachment to G-d, and the longing to annihilate the sense of self in the consuming love for G-d. In this place there is no room for impurity. The altar, thus, symbolizes the essence of the soul, the pintele Yid within every Jew, that can never lose its purity. This essence is above being affected by the person's thoughts or behavior. It is an inner point that always remains connected to G-d, which the Jew can never sever even if he should so desire.

The particular covering of the altar, be it gold or copper, is not important. These outer layers, the gold and the copper, symbolize the paths which temptation can take in an attempt to test our devotion to G-d: poverty (copper) and wealth (gold). A person can be tempted to veer off the true path of righteousness by the enticement of riches or by the hardships of poverty. But this can only affect a person's exterior. The internal part of a Jew, the essence of his soul, always remains bound to G-d. The Torah promises that through true repentance, the inner purity of the Jew's soul will, in the end, triumph over all the other variables and temptations. And that the "Sanctuary" and all its "vessels" will eventually become cleansed and purified.


The Rebbe, Rabbi Menachem M. Schneerson of Lubavitch, issued a call that "The time of our Redemption has arrived!" and "Moshiach is on his way!"

The Rebbe stressed that he is saying this as a prophecy, and asks us all to prepare ourselves for the Redemption, through increasing acts of goodness and kindness.

Let us all heed the Rebbe's call.

Reb Mordechai ben Reb Shaul

Passed away on 22 Tamuz, 5763

Adapted from a Letter of the Rebbe

Overcoming Haman

Rosh Chodesh Adar II, 5738/1978

As you surely know, the special additional Torah portion, Parshat Zachor, which is read on the Shabbat before Purim, contains the commandments to remember what Amalek, the arch-enemy of our Jewish people, did to our people when they were on their way to receive the Torah at Sinai. Amalek's unprovoked and stealthy attack was calculated to shake their belief in G-d and dampen their enthusiasm for His Torah and mitzvot.

Haman, a direct descendant of Amalek, was driven by hatred of the Jews, because "their laws were different from those of any other people," as the Megillah states. Likewise did all subsequent Amalekites and Hamans of all ages hate the Jews.

But "Amalek" -- in a wider sense -- represents all obstacles and hindrances that a Jew encounters on his or her way to receive and observe the Torah and mitzvot with enthusiasm and joy in the everyday life. And so Parshat Zachor comes to remind us, and never forget, that Amalekites exist in every generation and in every day and age, and that we must not allow ourselves to be deterred or discouraged by any Amalekite in any shape or form.

If the question be asked, "Why has G-d done thus?" Why should a Jew be confronted with such trials and difficulties?

The answer is, that every Jew has been given the necessary powers to overcome all such Amalekites, and he is expected to use them, in order to demonstrate to himself and others that nothing will deter him, nor dampen his fervor, in the observance of the Torah and mitzvot in accordance with G-d's Will. And once he recognizes that whatever difficulty he encounters is really a test of his faith in G-d, and resolves firmly to meet the challenge, he will soon see that no Amalek of any kind is a match for the Divine powers of the Jewish soul. Indeed, far from being insurmountable obstructions, they turn out to be helpers and catalysts for ever greater achievements, having been instrumental in mobilizing those inner powers that would have otherwise remained dormant.

This is also forcefully brought out in the Megillah, in the example of Mordechai the Jew, who "would not bend his knee nor bow down" before Haman. As a result of this indomitable stance, not only was Haman's power totally broken, but many enemies became friends, as the Megillah tells us that "many of the peoples of the land were becoming 'Jewish,' for the fear of Mordechai fell upon them!"

May G-d grant that each and all of you should go from strength to strength in emulating Mordechai the Jew, advancing in all matters of Judaism, Torah and mitzvot, with joy and gladness of heart, and may you all be blessed with a full measure of "light, joy, gladness, and honor," both in the plain sense as well as in the inner meaning of these terms in accordance with the interpretation of our Sages -- "Light -- this is the Torah... Honor -- this is tefillin" -- since the Torah and mitzvot, though a "must" for their own sake, are the channels and vessels to receive and enjoy G-d's blessings in all needs, materially and spiritually.

Wishing each and all of you a happy Purim, and may its inspiration be with you every day throughout the year.


Dear Friend,

On the festival of Purim, when we all listen carefully to the reading of the Megillah and ponder upon the story it tells us, let us all remember a few important details and facts that took place in those days at this time:

There arose a Haman, who issued a decree to murder and destroy all Jews at a fixed date.

Queen Esther then calls upon Mordechai to "gather all the Jews and fast" and then she would go and plead with the King to rescind the terrible decree.

Mordechai thereupon goes and gathers tens of thousands of Jewish children and teaches them the Torah; he teaches them the procedure of offering the Omer when the Bet-Hamikdosh would be rebuilt.

All the children are so enchanted by the new spirit that Mordechai had inculcated into them, that even facing the danger of death, they exclaim: We stick with Mordechai and the Torah -- for life or death!

In that very same day the decree becomes null and void. Haman's downfall is already assured and the Jews are saved, even though they learn of it only after a number of months.

The experience of our fathers is a lesson to us all.

Let us remember that one of the chief means of frustrating the Hamans of our time, bring about their downfall and bring light and joy to our people is:


To tell them that the true and complete redemption really lies in our own hands, for as soon as we Jews return to G-d in complete repentance -- we are redeemed immediately, by our Righteous Messiah.

To tell them further, that our Holy Bet-HaMikdosh will be rebuilt soon, and we must all be worthy and prepared to serve our G-d in the Holy Sanctuary.

On the day when the Jewish children are imbued with this spirit, and are ready to exclaim -- "We remain with thee, our Torah, for life or death" -- on that very day, our Torah assures us, all the Hamans will be defeated, and all Jews will have 'light, gladness, joy and respect,' speedily in our time.

Wishing you a Happy Purim,

Rabbi Menachem M. Schneerson

14 Adar, 5767
March 3-4, 2007


Danger in Exile

Jewish morale was at an all-time low. The Temple in Jerusalem had been destroyed, the nation conquered, and for almost 70 years, had been dispersed in foreign lands. The prophesied end of Exile had not materialized, and the blight of assimilation had set in.

Just then, the enemy arose to carry out his evil plans. This time it was Haman. Descended from the Jew-hating tribe of Amalek, Haman devised his scheme to solve "the Jewish problem" once and for all, by annihilating every Jew, men, women and children, throughout the world, in a single day.

Rallying the Jews

And it almost worked. Were it not for Mordechai. A descendent of King Shaul, and advisor to King Achashverosh, Mordechai sensed the danger. Donning sackcloth and ashes, he went to the gate of the palace, crying aloud, rallying the Jews to return to Torah.

His niece, Queen Esther, called for him. He told her that she must go to the King and plead for her people. Officially in disfavor, she feared to go, but saw that she had no choice. She undertook a three-day fast of penitence, and called upon the whole Jewish people to do likewise. Then she went to the King . . .


It is a story of great courage and self-sacrifice -- first and foremost by Queen Esther and Mordechai, and ultimately by the whole Jewish nation. For throughout the duration of the whole year, not one single Jew chose to convert, even to save his life. The nation was awakened to a whole-hearted return to Torah and mitzvot, and throughout the year strengthened their faith and observance.

And in the merit of this, they were able to rise up against their enemies and destroy them, on the 13th of Adar, the very day destined for the "final solution."

The Jewish people had shown their true character. They had earned the right to leave Exile, to return to the Holy Land, and rebuild the Temple.

As it was in those days, so may it be with us today. Each year in fulfilling the special mitzvot of the Purim festival, we reaffirm our commitment to the eternal values of the Torah . . . and we share in the very same merit that redeemed the Jewish people in the days of Mordechai and Esther.

Based on the Works of the Rebbe

Remembered and Reenacted

One of the Purim mitzvot is the reading of the Megillah -- the Scroll of Esther, in which the miracle of Purim is recounted. The Talmud tells us that "whoever reads the Megillah backwards does not fulfill his obligation." Our Sages explain that "backwards" does not only mean in reverse order; it also means that whoever reads the Megillah merely as ancient history has missed the point.

The Purim story is directly relevant to our contemporary world. As the Megillah itself tells us, that when we celebrate Purim each year, the miraculous events of Purim are "remembered and reenacted" in our lives.

Haman, Then and Now

One does not have to look far to find Haman's modern-day heirs. Now, as then, there are evil schemers who seek to scapegoat the Jewish people and -- Heaven forfend -- to erase us from the face of the earth. Each time they rise up to destroy us, their schemes are foiled by the miraculous Hand of G-d.

The most striking example in recent times was the Persian Gulf War that ended victoriously on Purim, 5751/1991.

From Redemption to Redemption

Throughout our history, we have seen miracles. Despite centuries upon centuries of persecution, we have survived and flourished, by the Grace of G-d.

Yet we have remained in exile for nearly 2,000 years, hoping and praying for the final and complete Redemption -- the Redemption that will end suffering and exile forever. May the observance of Purim be a precursor to the coming of Moshiach, our Righteous Redeemer, whose imminent arrival will bring about a better life for all the nations of the world.


Every generation has its Mordechai. In our generation, the Rebbe has taught some deep things about joy and Purim. Have a taste:

1. Explosive Joy

Joy is an overflowing, an explosion. Something enters a person's life for which he could never be prepared and his previously tidy self erupts in song, dance and joy.

Approach the Divine with a calculated mind and there is no window for joy. Embrace the infinite beyond mind and let joy surprise you.

2. G-d with the Oppressed

Visit the prisoners and bring them some happiness. Even if they are guilty. Even if, in your eyes, they deserve whatever misery they have. Bring them joy.

G-d is always with the oppressed. Even if the oppressor is righteous and the oppressed is wicked, our sages tell us, G-d is with the oppressed.

3. Fear of Joy

People are afraid of joy. They are afraid they'll get out of hand and lose control.

These people haven't experienced real joy -- the joy that comes from doing something G-dly and beautiful with all your heart. The fact is, there is nothing that will lift you higher. Where there is that joy, the Divine Presence can enter. Where there is that joy, there are no pits to fall into, and all obstacles evaporate into thin air.

4. Joy Unleashed

There are many kinds of barriers: Those from within and those from without. Barriers between people. Barriers that prevent you from doing good things. Barriers of your own mind and your own hesitations. There are the barriers that exist simply because you are a limited being. Joy breaks through all barriers.

5. The Highest

True happiness is the highest form of self-sacrifice. There, in that state, there is no sense of self -- not even awareness that you are happy. True happiness is somewhere beyond "knowing." Beyond self. All the more so when you bring joy to others.


Since this year Purim begins right after Shabbat, on Saturday night, March 3, we must be especially careful to avoid any violations of the sanctity of Shabbat.

Preparation of the Megillah, noise-makers, etc., or riding to the synagogue, must not begin until the conclusion of Shabbat.(1)

After this time, we say "Boruch hamavdil bein kodesh lechol" (Blessed is He who makes a distinction between sacred and profane) and we may then ride to the synagogue with all the necessary items for the evening service.


1. In New York City, at 6:30 p.m.


Purim is the festival that commemorates the breathtaking victory over the murderous designs of Haman. Observed on the fourteenth of Adar, this joyous festival reveals the hidden Hand of G-d in the events of man.

It is a day to be celebrated by the entire family -- not only adults and boys and girls past bar/bas mitzvah, but youngsters too should be encouraged to fulfill the mitzvot of Purim.

Listen to the Megillah

To relive the miraculous events of Purim, we listen to the reading of the Megillah (the Scroll of Esther) on Saturday night, March 3, and again on Sunday, March 4, during the daytime.

When Haman's name is mentioned, we twirl graggers and stamp our feet to "drown out" his evil name. Tell the children Purim is the only time when it's a mitzvah to make noise!

Send Gifts of Food

On Purim we emphasize the importance of Jewish unity and friendship by sending gifts of food to friends. Send a gift of at least two kinds of ready-to-eat foods (for example, pastry, fruit, beverage), to at least one friend on Sunday, March 4, during the daytime.

It is proper that men send to men and women to women. Sending these gifts should be done through a third party. Children, in addition to sending their own gifts of food, make enthusiastic messengers.

Give Gifts to the Needy

Concern for the needy is a year-round responsibility for the Jew. On Purim, particularly, it is a special mitzvah to remember the poor. Give charity to at least two, but preferably more, needy individuals on Sunday, March 4, during the daytime.

The mitzvah is best fulfilled by giving directly to the needy. If, however, you cannot find poor people, place at least several coins into pushkas (charity boxes). Even small children should fulfill this mitzvah.

Eat the Festive Meal

As on all festivals, we celebrate Purim with a special festive meal on Sunday, March 4, during the daytime, when family and friends gather together to rejoice in the Purim spirit.


The Fast of Esther

To commemorate the day of prayer and fasting that the Jews held before their victory, we fast before Purim, on Thursday, March 1, from approximately 72 minutes before sunrise until 40 minutes after sunset.(2)

Machatzit Hashekel

It is a tradition to give 3 half-dollar coins to charity to commemorate the half-shekel given by each Jew in the time of the Holy Temple.

This mitzvah, usually performed in the synagogue, should be done on Thursday, March 1, or Sunday, March 4, according to your custom.

Special Prayers

On Purim we recite the V'Al HaNissim liturgy in the Amidah (Silent Prayer) for evening, morning and afternoon, as well as in the Grace After Meals.

In the morning service there is a special reading from the Torah Scroll in the synagogue.


2. In New York City, the fast ends at 6:26 p.m.


Hamentaschen, a traditional Purim delight, is a three-cornered pastry filled with mohn (poppy seed) or other sweet filling.

  • 1 cup sugar
  • 1/3 cup oil
  • 1/2 cup margarine
  • 3 eggs
  • 4 cups flour
  • 1/2 cup orange juice
  • 3 tsps. baking powder
  • 1 tsp. salt
  • 1 egg, beaten
  • 2 lbs. mohn filling

Cream sugar, oil and margarine. Add eggs and juice and mix well. Blend with dry ingredients and roll into a ball. Divide into four parts. Roll out each piece very thin (approximately 1/8 inch) on a floured board. With the rim of a cup or glass (depending on desired size), cut into the dough to make circles. Place 1/2 to 2/3 teaspoon of filling in the middle of each circle.

To shape into triangle, lift up right and left sides, leaving the bottom side down, and bring both sides to meet at center, above the filling. Lift bottom side up to center to meet other two sides.

Preheat oven to 350o. Brush dough with beaten egg before baking. Place on greased cookie sheet. Bake at 350o for approximately 20 minutes.

Yields 4 dozen Hamentaschen.


Purim is such a great holiday.

Children and adults alike love to celebrate Purim with the exciting and unusual mitzvot and customs of the day. Dressing up, eating hamentaschen for dessert at the Purim meal (do you like prune, poppy seed, raspberry or apricot?), twirling the gragger at Haman's name in the Megillah, and giving shalach manot -- food gifts to friends. These are the reasons why the young of age and the young at heart look forward to Purim each year.

Did you ever stop to think what the Purim mitzvot and customs have in common? Let's take off the masks, open up the shalach manot, look inside the Megillah -- peel the layers off of everything -- and see the common denominator intrinsic to all of them.

When someone is dressed up in a costume or mask, his identity is concealed. Rich or poor, smart or average, pretty or homely, we no longer perceive the physical, economic, or intellectual differences that often separate us. Yes, one costume is expensive, another more original, and there are hundreds of Queen Esthers. But it's obvious that these are just externals. They aren't the person inside the costume. On a very basic level, when we dress up on Purim our superficial differences are, for the moment, concealed.

The Megillah, that exciting story recounting the triumph of right over might, good over evil, and the Jews' faith in G-d over the vile schemes of Haman, is also a lesson in Jewish equality and unity. For, it was only once the Jews united, that they were saved from Haman's plan of total annihilation. Men, women and children, scholars and shoe cobblers, peasants and the Queen all fasted and prayed as one for three days and nights to avert the evil decree. And because they united, because each one felt equally responsible and able to effect a change, their prayers and penitence were accepted.

Now, on to those delicious hamentaschen of varying fillings and recipes. Some say they are meant to remind us of Haman's hat or his ears. But they are also symbolic of that which is hidden within. G-d's Hand, so to speak, was hidden during the whole Purim episode -- the incidents that led up to Esther being crowned queen, Mordechai overhearing the palace guards' plot to kill Achashverosh, etc., seemed quite natural. But they were -- like everything in life -- Divine Providence, G-d's way of putting together an intricate puzzle.

Just as the filling is concealed in the hamentaschen and the Divine was hidden during the Purim epoch of Jewish history, the Divine within each one of us is hidden -- very often to others and often even to ourselves. The Divine within each of us is our soul -- the actual part of G-d that gives us life. And though it is intangible, though its existence is often concealed, the soul is the great equalizer of all of us. For, though one Jew might do more mitzvot than another, or have a more comprehensive Jewish education, or be kinder or gentler, the essence of our souls and their source are the same -- an actual part of G-d.

Lastly, we have the shalach manot, those delightful packages of goodies. They range from a sandwich bag with raisins, cookies and a drink to a three-foot-high wicker basket filled with aged-wine and elegant treats. There are numerous differences in packaging, price and products, but, once again, all shalach manot have one thing in common: they foster unity. Unity not just because we feel good when we give and when we receive. But unity also because we customarily give the shalach manot through a messenger -- we involve another person in the mitzvah. When giving the shalach manot we connect not only with the person to whom we are giving, but to a third person as well. And the messenger can be anyone -- young or old, friend or stranger, male or female.

This Purim in particular is a special time to participate in the mitzvot of Purim or to enhance our observance of them. For, as the Rebbe explained, the Redemption is imminent and each act of kindness, every deed, any additional mitzvah, helps us better prepare ourselves for that era which is unfolding before our very eyes.


The Jews of Persia celebrated their victory over Haman and their other enemies on Adar 14. The Jews of the capital city of Shushan -- a walled city -- however, had a longer battle, waging war on the 13th and 14th of Adar. They therefore celebrated on the 15th.

To honor the Land of Israel, our Sages ordained that any city in Israel that had been surrounded by a wall -- like Shushan -- during the times of Joshua would also celebrate Purim on Adar 15. Thus, the 15th of Adar became known as Shushan Purim.

Jerusalem is the only city in Israel where Purim is celebrated on Adar 15.


The most important principle in the Torah is the protection of Jewish life.

It's more important than Shabbat, more important than holidays, even fasting on Yom Kippur.

Right now, in Israel, and everywhere, Jews must stand together in unity and do whatever possible to protect Jewish life.

The Rebbe teaches that there are ten important Mitzvot we can do to protect life. See what you can do:

1) Ahavat Yisroel: Behave with love towards another Jew.

2) Learn Torah: Join a Torah class.

3) Make sure that Jewish children get a Torah true education.

4) Affix kosher Mezuzot on all doorways of the house.

5) For men and boys over 13: Put on Tefillin every weekday.

6) Give Charity.

7) Buy Jewish holy books and learn them.

8) Light Shabbat & Yom Tov candles. A Mitzvah for women and girls.

9) Eat and drink only Kosher Food.

10) Observe the laws of Jewish Family Purity.

In addition the Rebbe urges that:

Every Jewish man, woman and child should have a letter written for them in a Sefer Torah.*

Every person should study either the Rambam's Yad Hachazakah -- Code of Jewish Law -- or the Sefer HaMitzvos.

Concerning Moshiach, the Rebbe stated, "The time for our redemption has arrived!" Everyone should prepare themselves for Moshiach's coming by doing random acts of goodness and kindness, and by studying about what the future redemption will be like. May we merit to see the fulfillment of the Rebbe's prophecy now!


*. There are several Torah scrolls being written to unite Jewish people and protect Jewish life.

Letters for children can be purchased for only $1. Send your Hebrew name and your mother's Hebrew name plus $1 to:
"Children's Sefer Torah," P. O. Box 8, Kfar Chabad, 72915, Israel
or via the Internet, at: http://www.kidstorah.org


The Rebbe's slogan is: "The main thing is the deed." We therefore present from the Rebbe's talks, suggestions of what we can do to complete his work of bringing the Redemption.

Celebrate Purim:

The Rebbe has called on every Jew to observe the mitzvot of Purim: hearing the Megillah read, giving charity, eating a festive meal, sending gifts of food to friends and reciting the V'Al HaNissim prayer.

In addition, the Rebbe asked that everyone take part in spreading the awareness of the mitzvot of Purim. "There should not be a single Jew in a far-off corner of the world who does not have the opportunity to fulfill all the mitzvot of Purim."


May this Most Joyous of Jewish Festivals
Bring Joy to You and All Your Loved Ones...

May the Miracle of Purim be Reenacted
in Your Life, Your Family's Life
and in All Our Lives...

And May We Rejoice Together
in the Culmination of the Miracle of Purim --
the Imminent Arrival of Moshiach,
and a Better World for All Humankind.


Jewish Women and Girls Light Shabbat Candles

For local candle lighting times:
consult your local Rabbi, Chabad-Lubavitch Center.
or: http://www.candlelightingtimes.org/shabbos

For a free candle lighting kit:
contact your local Chabad-Lubavitch Center.

For a listing of the Centers in your area:
In the USA, call: 1-800-Lubavitch (1-800-582-2848).

Times shown are for Metro NY - NJ

Friday, March 2, Erev Shabbat Parshat Tetzave:

  • Light Shabbat Candles,(3) by 5:30 p.m.

Saturday, March 3, Shabbat Parshat Tetzave:

  • Parshat Zachor.
  • Shabbat ends at nightfall, at 6:30 p.m.


3. The Shabbat candles must be lit 18 minutes before sunset. It is prohibited and is a desecration of the Shabbat to light the candles after sunset.

Laws of Shabbat Candle Lighting for the Blind

Shabbat Candle Lighting Blessing

"Let There Be Light" - The Jewish Women's Guide to Lighting Shabbat Candles.

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